CMP 14, GGT, CRP,hs, ESR, Insulin, HgA1C, Homocysteine, Vitamin D 25 OH, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, Total T3, Reverse T3, TPO ab, Thyroglobulin ab, Copper Serum, Zinc Plasma, Ceruloplasmin, B12/Folate, Iron & TIBC, CBC w/ Diff, Ferritin, LDL-P, Basic Lipid Panel
The Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP14) is used in the evaluation of organ function and checks for conditions such as diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP may also be ordered to monitor conditions, such as hypertension, and to monitor patients taking medications for any kidney- or liver-related side effects. If a doctor is interested in following two or more individual CMP components, they may order the entire CMP because it offers more information and can give a more thorough assessment.
GGT is used to determine why a patient would have elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase or also known as ALP. This test would be recommended for any patients with disease associated with the bile duct, and also for patients who have liver or bone disease.
C-Reactive Protein, hs: Increases when there’s inflammation in your body. This test can also be used to evaluate your risk of developing coronary artery disease.
Sedimentation Rate, Westergren (ESR): The Sedimentation Rate test is used to evaluate the nonspecific activity of infections, inflammatory states, autoimmune disorders, and plasma cell dyscrasias.
Insulin: This test is used to diagnose an insulin-producing tumor and verify that the removal of the tumor has been successful. It can also be used to diagnose hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and can be paired with a C-peptides test to determine levels of insulin being produced in the body, and levels of insulin coming from an outside source such as insulin injections.
Hemoglobin A1c: Diabetes and prediabetes in adults can be diagnosed and screened for using this test. When glucose attaches to hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c is then created. When glucose levels are elevated, more glycated hemoglobin is created.
Homocysteine: This test is ordered for a variety of clinical purposes including heart conditions, and vitamin b12 or folate deficiency. Testing homocysteine can be effective in identifying abnormal levels of B12 and folate before symptoms are present.
Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy: Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy is ordered when an individual has low calcium and/or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency. This can appear as bone weakness/softness, or fractures in adults, or as rickets (bone malformation) in children.
The vitamin D test is for individuals at high risk of deficiency. It is used to monitor diseases that interfere with fat absorption. These diseases include cystic fibrosis or Crohn disease. This test also monitors the effectiveness of Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy, calcium, magnesium or phosphorus supplementation.
Individuals at risk of vitamin D deficiency include: older adults, individuals who have limited exposure to sunlight, individuals who are obese, or who have fat malabsorption.
Low levels of D-25 hydroxy are one of the earliest changes that show in individuals with early kidney failure. People with kidney disease also show low levels.
High levels of D-25 hydroxy show due to diseases that can make Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy outside of the kidneys. The two primary diseases related to this are sarcoidosis or certain lymphomas.
Long term high levels of vitamin D can eventually lead to the damage of certain organs such as the kidneys and blood vessels via calcification. If magnesium levels are low, a physician may supplement both magnesium and calcium in order to eliminate a low calcium level that is resistant to Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy.
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) is the most common test used to evaluate thyroid function and symptoms related to a thyroid disorder such as hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism. Produced by the pituitary gland, the primary role of TSH in the body is to stabilize amounts of T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine) in the blood. This process controls how much energy the body burns.
Free T3 (free triiodothyronine) is used to evaluate thyroid function and also in the assessment of abnormal binding protein disorders. Measurement of Free T3 is valuable in confirming the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, when an elevated free or total thyroxine level is found. Abnormal total and free triiodothyronine concentrations may appear in T3 toxicosis, in the presence of normal thyroxine levels. The levels of free T3 are unaffected by carrier protein variation.
Free (Thyroxine) T4 can sometimes be indicated when binding globulin (TBG) problems are perceived, or when conventional test results appear inconsistent with clinical observations. It is common in subjects with high thyroxine-binding globulin hormone binding who are euthyroid (ie, free thyroxine should be normal in non-thyroidal diseases). It should appear normal in familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia.
T3 Total (Triiodothyronine) is needed in patients who have clinical evidence for hyperthyroidism, in whom the usual thyroid profile result is reported as normal or borderline. The T3 Total test is recommended for patients with supraventricular tachycardia, for patients with fatigue and weight loss not otherwise explained, or for patients with proximal myopathy who also have T4 levels that are not elevated.
Reverse T3 is a biologically inactive form of T3. When T4 is converted to T3 in the body, a certain percentage of the T3 is in the form of RT3. When the body is under stress, thyroid hormone levels may be outside of normal ranges even though there is no thyroid disease present. RT3 may be elevated in non-thyroidal conditions, particularly the stress of illness.
Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Ab is used in the differential diagnosis of hypothyroidism and thyroiditis.
Thyroglobulin Ab is primarily used to detect and confirm autoimmune thyroiditis, Hashimoto thyroiditis.
Copper Serum is a highly reliable blood test that directly relates to brain chemistry. Elevated copper levels can alter the brains function, specifically the activity of dopamine and norepinephrine. Copper plays a large role in the metabolism of dopamine and the synthesis of norepinephrine. In turn, elevated copper levels lower dopamine levels and raise levels of norepinephrine. Imbalances in these essential brain chemicals have been related to paranoid schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder, postpartum depression, ADD, ADHD, autism, and violent aggressive behavior. Copper serum levels can single handedly be the root cause of an individual condition, but elevated copper serum levels are also known to cause zinc levels to deplete and oxidative stress to rise.
Zinc plasma is a measurement that is closely correlated to biochemistry, and more specifically brain chemistry. Functional levels of zinc, along with a copper/zinc ratio, are frequently performed as markers for specific neuro activity.
Ceruloplasmin is used in the evaluation of oxidative stress. When paired with copper, it is used to calculate free copper. When paired with other blood or urine copper tests, ceruloplasmin is used to help diagnose Wilson’s disease. This is due to a decreased ability to incorporate copper into apoceruloplasmin. In turn, free copper levels in plasma and tissue are greatly increased, especially in the liver and brain.
Vitamin B12: Detect B12 deficiency as in pernicious anemia; diagnose folic acid deficiency; evaluate hypersegmentation of granulocyte nuclei; follow up MCV >100; diagnose macrocytic anemia; diagnose megaloblastic anemia; evaluate alcoholism, prenatal care; evaluate malabsorption, neurological disorders, or the elevation of B12 as seen in liver cell damage or myeloid leukemia.
Folate: A vitamin that unfortunately cannot be produced by the body. The only way to gain this vitamin is through food. Folate is essential for RBC formation and also for the repair of tissues and cells.
Folate (Folic Acid) test use:
-Detect folate deficiency
-Monitor therapy with folate
-Evaluate megaloblastic and macrocytic anemia
-Evaluate alcoholic patients
Testing the folic acid level is primarily used in the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia.
Iron & TIBC is used to aid in the evaluation of a number of conditions involved with red cell production and destruction, iron transport, or iron metabolism
The Complete Blood Count (CBC) is often used as a broad screening test to determine an individual’s general health status. It can be used to:
-Screen for a wide range of conditions and diseases
-Help diagnose various conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, bleeding disorder or leukemia, to name just a few
-Monitor the condition and/or effectiveness of treatment after a diagnosis is established
-Monitor treatment that is known to affect blood cells, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy
Ferritin: The ferritin test is used to evaluate an individual’s iron levels in the body. Ferritin is often paired with an iron test and also a TIBC test. Ferritin levels correlate with and are useful in the evaluation of total body storage iron.
LDL-P: NMR LDL-P is a management tool used in appropriate high-risk patients (type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, CVD risk equivalent, statin-treated patients) to adjudicate response to treatment and guide adjustment in therapy. It is used in conjunction with other lipid measurements and clinical evaluation to aid in the management of lipoprotein disorders associated with cardiovascular disease.
Basic Lipid Panel: This test measures Cholesterol, total; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (calculation); triglycerides; very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (calculation).