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CMP (14) used in the evaluation of organ function and checks for conditions such as diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP may also be ordered to monitor conditions, such as hypertension, and to monitor patients taking medications for any kidney- or liver-related side effects. If a doctor is interested in following two or more individual CMP components, they may order the entire CMP because it offers more information and can give a more thorough assessment.
CBC is often used as a broad screening test to determine an individual’s general health status. It can be used to:
The lipid panel is used to guide practitioners regarding what treatment is best for patients who have borderline or high risk of heart disease. HDL particles are involved in the process of removing excess cholesterol and transporting it to the liver for removal. LDL particles deposits extra cholesterol in the walls of blood vessels. Because of this, HDL particles are known as “good cholesterol” and LDL particles are known as “bad cholesterol”.
The LDH test is used to evaluate and monitor a number of different diseases and conditions including acute or chronic tissue damage, and different forms of anemia or severe infection. The LDH test can also help stage and monitor treatment such as chemotherapy for several different forms of cancers and germ cell tumors.
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is used to determine why a patient would have elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase or also known as ALP. This test would be recommended for any patients with disease associated with the bile duct, and also for patients who have liver or bone disease.
Iron & TIBC is used to aid in the evaluation of a number of conditions involved with red cell production and destruction, iron transport, or iron metabolism.
The uric acid blood test is used to detect high levels of this compound in the blood in order to help diagnose gout. The test is also used to monitor uric acid levels in people undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer. Rapid cell turnover from such treatment can result in an increased uric acid level. The uric acid blood test is ordered when a health care provider suspects that someone has a high uric acid level. Some people with high levels of uric acid have a disease called gout, which is a common form of arthritis. People with gout suffer from joint pain, most often in their toes, but in other joints as well. The test is also ordered to monitor cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to ensure that uric acid levels do not get dangerously high.
Primary hyperparathyroidism and other causes of calcium elevation, including ectopic hyperparathyroidism (pseudohyperparathyroidism).
The signs and symptoms of phosphate depletion may include neuromuscular, neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and cardiopulmonary systems. Manifestations usually are accompanied by serum levels <1.0 mg/dL.
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) is the most common test used to evaluate thyroid function and symptoms related to a thyroid disorder such as hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism. Produced by the pituitary gland, the primary role of TSH in the body is to stabilize amounts of T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine) in the blood. This process controls how much energy the body burns.
The TSH test is often ordered to:
The TSH test is often ordered with a free T4 test, free T3 test, and/or thyroid antibodies. These tests can be ordered together in a panel called a thyroid panel.
Symptoms related to hyperthyroidism include anxiety, weight loss, shaking, weakness, sensitivity to light, or eye problems (swollen eyes, irritation/dryness).
Symptoms related to hypothyroidism include swollen skin, tiredness/fatigue, hair loss, weight gain, dry skin, or irregularity with menstruation in women.
Individuals who are being treated for a thyroid disorder often have the TSH test ordered at regular intervals. It is also ordered when an individual has an adjustment in their thyroid medication. The American Thyroid Association recommends that patients wait 6-8 weeks after adjusting medication before they retest thyroid stimulating hormone levels.
T3 Total (Triiodothyronine) is needed in patients who have clinical evidence for hyperthyroidism, in whom the usual thyroid profile result is reported as normal or borderline. The T3 Total test is recommended for patients with supraventricular tachycardia, for patients with fatigue and weight loss not otherwise explained, or for patients with proximal myopathy who also have T4 levels that are not elevated.
Free (Thyroxine) T4 can sometimes be indicated when binding globulin (TBG) problems are perceived, or when conventional test results appear inconsistent with clinical observations. It is common in subjects with high thyroxine-binding globulin hormone binding who are euthyroid (ie, free thyroxine should be normal in non-thyroidal diseases). It should appear normal in familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia.
Total T4 is a thyroid function test. Total T4 is decreased in hypothyroidism and in the third stage of (painful) subacute thyroiditis. It is increased with hyperthyroidism, with subacute thyroiditis in its first stage and with thyrotoxicosis caused by Hashimoto disease. Total T4 is also used to diagnose T4 toxicosis.
C-Reactive Protein, hs increases when there’s inflammation in your body. Also can be used to evaluate your risk of developing coronary artery disease.
Homocysteine is ordered for a variety of clinical purposes including heart conditions, and vitamin b12 or folate deficiency. Testing homocysteine can be effective in identifying abnormal levels of B12 and folate before symptoms are present. Practitioners will order this test on patients who may be malnourished or with poor nutrition. This includes the elderly, drug addicts, and alcohol addicts.
Individuals who are at risk of, or have a family history of heart disease or stroke are also strong candidates for this test. Practitioners will also order this test on patients with a family history of coronary artery disease. Young children and babies are tested for homocysteine if they test positive for homocystinuria (high levels of methionine) during routine screenings.
Symptoms that qualify a patient to have a homocysteine test include but are not limited to:
Practitioners order this test on patients who have recently experienced a stroke or heart attack in order to guide treatment. This is due to the test’s ability to assess an individual’s risk of cardiovascular disease.
Practitioners can also order the homocysteine test on patients over the age of 30 who are going through supplemental treatment. This allows for the practitioner to assess whether or not certain supplements will have a negative impact on the patient’s heart.
Insulin is used to diagnose an insulin-producing tumor and verify that the removal of the tumor has been successful. It can also be used to diagnose hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and can be paired with a C-peptides test to determine levels of insulin being produced in the body, and levels of insulin coming from an outside source such as insulin injections.
Diabetes and prediabetes in adults can be diagnosed and screened for using this test. When glucose attaches to hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c is then created. When glucose levels are elevated, more glycated hemoglobin is created.
Fibrinogen is essential for the formation of a blood clot. Deficiency in fibrinogen can produce mild to severe bleeding disorders.
Fibrinogen Activity is used in the diagnosis of:
-Heterozygous fibrinogen deficiency
-Homozygous fibrinogen deficiency
Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy is ordered when an individual has low calcium and/or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency. This can appear as bone weakness/softness, or fractures in adults, or as rickets (bone malformation) in children.
The vitamin D test is for individuals at high risk of deficiency. It is used to monitor diseases that interfere with fat absorption. These diseases include cystic fibrosis or Crohn disease. This test also monitors the effectiveness of Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy, calcium, magnesium or phosphorus supplementation.
Individuals at risk of vitamin D deficiency include: older adults, individuals who have limited exposure to sunlight, individuals who are obese, or who have fat malabsorption.
Low levels of D-25 hydroxy are one of the earliest changes that show in individuals with early kidney failure. People with kidney disease also show low levels.
High levels of D-25 hydroxy show due to diseases that can make Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy outside of the kidneys. The two primary diseases related to this are sarcoidosis or certain lymphomas.
Long term high levels of vitamin D can eventually lead to the damage of certain organs such as the kidneys and blood vessels via calcification. If magnesium levels are low, a physician may supplement both magnesium and calcium in order to eliminate a low calcium level that is resistant to Vitamin D-25 Hydroxy.
Magnesium RBC test is used in the evaluation of Magnesium deficiency. It can often be used to show an earlier indication of Magnesium deficiency than a standard Magnesium test can.